What is a Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT)?

Ujjwal Maheshwari Ujjwal Maheshwari, April 19, 2024

REITs were designed to open the door for all, both retail and institutional investors, allowing them to gain exposure to property assets like commercial and residential property, much like buying stocks in various industries and generate income. Originating in the US during the 1960s, this concept allowed everyday people to invest in large-scale, income-generating assets. The popularity of REITs has since spread globally, with countries tailoring the structure to their regulations and property market nuances.

In the 1970s, Australia adapted this model into A-REITs (Australian Real Estate Investment Trusts), enabling Australian investors to delve into property investment in office towers, shopping malls, apartment buildings, and retirement living facilities.


What is a real estate investment trust?

A REIT is a company that invests in real estate funds that own or manage revenue-producing property assets. They can include a variety of real estate, such as commercial and residential property, offering investors a path to capital gains and regular income streams, primarily through rental income. This makes REITs an attractive option for investors seeking both growth and income.


Structure of REITs

REITs stand out by legally needing to distribute a significant portion of profits, usually over 90% of taxable income, as dividends to shareholders. This requirement not only provides a tax-advantaged income stream to investors but ensures the REIT’s management aligns with shareholder interests. Unlike direct investment in physical property, REITs offer retail investors and other investors easier access, liquidity (as they’re often publicly traded), and the diversification benefits of professional management without the minimum initial investment often associated with private REITs.

Investors can buy REITs that focus on specific sectors within the property market, such as data centres, cell towers represented by Goodman Group, or diversified portfolios managed by the GPT Group. The option to invest in equity REITs invest in property assets directly, or REITs provide professional advice and management fees, offers flexibility to those looking to diversify their investment strategy in the property investment space. Most REITs operate under strict regulations by the Australian Securities and Investments Commission, ensuring transparency and security for investors.

real estate investment trust (REIT)


Types of REITs

Equity REITs

Leasing space and collecting rent on the properties they own are the main sources of income. The Westfield shopping centers that Scentre Group (ASX: SCG) manages in Australia and New Zealand is an excellent example of an equity REIT that specializes in retail properties. Because of their direct exposure to real estate assets and the possibility of both income and value growth from these assets, equity REITs are attractive.

Mortgage REITs

Mortgage-backed securities and mortgages are acquired by or created by Mortgage REITs (mREITs), which then use the proceeds to finance income-producing real estate. The interest received on these financial assets provides them with a living. mREITs provide investors with a distinct real estate market exposure compared to equity REITs, though being less common. Their primary concentration is on financing, as opposed to direct property asset ownership.

Hybrid REITs

Holding both physical real estate holdings and real estate debt instruments, hybrid REITs combine the investment techniques of equity and mortgage REITs. By combining the steady, direct revenue from property rentals with the interest income from mortgage lending, this combination enables hybrid real estate investment trusts (REITs) to diversify their sources of income and risk profiles. Thus, hybrid REITs serve investors who want a little bit of both worlds in their real estate investments by providing a thorough exposure to the real estate market through a single investment instrument.


How REITs acquire properties?

Effective portfolio management and strategic real estate acquisition are essential to REIT’s operational success. When choosing properties, REITs take great care to consider factors including location, quality of tenants, and potential for long-term income and gain. A-REIT’s, such as Mirvac Group (ASX: MGR), are renowned for their varied portfolio. They choose assets, like highly sought-after residential properties and prime commercial spaces in key cities, that correspond with their strategic objectives. The management component includes development projects meant to increase asset value, leasing operations, and property maintenance. By keeping the properties competitive and appealing to renters, these operational tactics ensure steady rental income and, consequently, dividends to shareholders.

Financial Structure

REITs finance developments and the purchase of real estate through a variety of funding sources. In addition to debt financing, which can take the form of bond issuance or bank loans, equity financing through the issuance of shares is common.

The gearing ratio—the proportion of debt to equity—is a crucial metric that affects both their risk profile and long-term viability. In order to protect investors’ interests, they generally maintain low levels of gearing.


Investing in REITs

Listed vs. Unlisted REITs

Listed REITs, such as those trading on the ASX, offer high liquidity, allowing investors to buy and sell shares easily. Due to the possibility of share price fluctuations based on general market trends, this availability involves a certain amount of market volatility. Unlisted REITs, on the other hand, might have more steady investment options, but they also have lower liquidity, so long-term investors might find them appealing.

Investment Platforms

Investors can access REITs directly by purchasing shares of individual REITs on the stock exchange or indirectly through funds and ETFs that aggregate multiple REITs. Targeted exposure to particular industries or management groups is possible through direct investment; for example, commercial real estate exposure is possible through Charter Hall Group (ASX: CHC). By offering diversified exposure across multiple REITs, indirect investment products such as the Vanguard Australian Property Securities Index ETF (ASX: VAP) lower the risk attached to the performance of individual REITs.

Factors to Consider

When making an investment in REITs, there are a few things to consider. For listed REITs, liquidity is important since it influences how simple it is to enter and exit positions. The value and state of the property portfolio are indicators of asset quality, which affects growth potential and income stability. The demand for the REIT’s assets is indicated by occupancy levels, which have an immediate effect on rental income. Lastly, the REIT’s financial health may be seen in its gearing ratios, where high values suggest possible vulnerability to downturns in the economy.


Pros and Cons of REIT Investment

  • Regular Income through Distributions: REITs are known for providing consistent income streams to investors through dividends derived from rental income. This feature is particularly appealing to income-focused investors, including retirees seeking regular cash flow.
  • Potential for Capital Growth and Inflation Protection: Apart from the income component, REITs offer potential capital appreciation over the long term as property values increase. Since rental agreements often include rent escalations tied to inflation, REITs can offer some protection against inflation, preserving the purchasing power of investors’ income.
  • Diversification Benefits within an Investment Portfolio: Including REITs in a portfolio can enhance diversification due to the low correlation between real estate returns and other financial assets like real estate stocks and bonds. This diversification can reduce overall portfolio risk and volatility.
  • Exposure to Real Estate Market Cycles and Economic Conditions: REITs are vulnerable to variations in the real estate market, which can be impacted by several economic factors like interest rates, unemployment rates, and economic downturns. The success of REITs can be impacted by these factors in terms of occupancy rates and property values.
  • Risks Associated with Leverage and Property Concentration: High levels of debt (leverage) can increase the risks during economic downturns, potentially leading to financial distress for heavily leveraged REITs. Additionally, REITs focusing on a narrow range of property types or geographical areas may face higher risks if that particular sector or region undergoes a downturn.


What are the Tax Implications?

In Australia, A-REITs benefit from a unique tax structure that allows them to distribute income to investors without being taxed at the corporate level, provided they distribute at least 90% of their taxable income. With the help of this arrangement, the individual investors—who pay taxes on these distributions at their marginal tax rates—are shielded from the REIT’s tax liability. Nevertheless, because of the REIT’s corporate tax exemption, these dividends are typically not franked, which have an impact on investors’ net income.

In contrast to dividends from other Australian firms that are eligible for franking credits, investors may have to pay more tax on their REIT income due to the absence of franking credits. However, the overall tax efficiency of REITs still makes them an attractive option for many investors, particularly those in lower tax brackets or investing through tax-advantaged accounts like superannuation funds.



Although real estate investment trusts (REITs) offer various advantages such as diversification of portfolio, potential for capital growth, and income creation, investors also need to manage the risks linked to real estate investing and market volatility. For individuals looking to take advantage of the opportunities in the real estate industry, investing in REITs with a strategic and informed approach is still an appealing alternative.


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